‘They explode with gayness’: Polish queer migration and self-realisation

Posted on June 01, 2021 by Alison Fox

This Pride Month, we're highlighting some of our  open access books that shed light on the experiences of  some members of the LGBTQI+ community. Prof.  This piece is by Richard Mole, whose new Open Access edited volume on Queer Migration and Asylum in Europe was published by UCL Press in Spring 2021.

While opposition to LGBT rights in Poland has lessened in recent years, it is still among the highest in the EU, the result in part of the instrumentalisation of homophobia by Polish religious figures and politicians. During his re-election campaign in 2020, for example, Andrzej Duda made repeated attacks on LGBT rights, while around 100 municipalities have declared themselves to be LGBT-free zones. In such contexts, queer Poles have to decide how to respond to situations in which they are constructed as a threat to society and religious values. For many migration is a key strategy to escape homophobia at home.

In my research on Polish queer migration to London, it was possible to make out two main migration pathways. While some of my interviewees moved directly from their home towns to London, most relocated from the small towns they grew up in to larger cities – primarily to the nation’s capital, Warsaw – before then moving to the UK. As Ryszard put it succinctly:

‘[If] you’re gay, you move to Warsaw or you can move abroad, or you move to Warsaw and then you move abroad!’

Migration from small towns to cities is a common experience of LGBT people the world over and the motivations of queer Poles in my study in many ways mapped on to those identified by scholars working on other societies: to come out; to move to a neighbourhood with an existing LGBT community or LGBT venues; to be with a same-sex partner; or to benefit from sexual citizenship rights.

Moving away from their home towns enabled those who had not yet come out to extricate themselves from the social control of their families to perform their sexuality in line with their own desires and reduce the risk that their sexual behaviour and identity would be reported back to their parents before they felt ready to tell them. For those who were not ready to come out but who wanted to explore their sexuality, living in their home towns might increase the risk of word getting out that they were gay or lesbian. The fact that, according to Bartosz, ‘everybody knows everyone’ in small towns, in particular, but also to some extent in cities meant that it was difficult to ensure that your private life stayed private.

Migration to Warsaw, which was frequently referred to as the most liberal city and its inhabitants the most open-minded in the country, offered an unparalleled gay scene, providing queer Poles with a sense of community and the opportunity to engage in sexual relationships – often for the first time. Yet, for others, domestic migration to Warsaw or one of Poland’s other cities only partly enabled them to live their lives on their own terms. For Adam, the dominant discourses around appropriate gender and sexual behaviour placed restrictions on his ability to express his feelings towards his boyfriend in ways that would have gone unnoticed had his partner been a woman:

When I started dating and I had a partner that I wanted to go out with, yeah, I didn’t ever feel comfortable about, I don’t know, showing our affection in public places, so to speak. And I didn’t mean like just snogging in the middle of a square or something but I mean, you know, those little gestures, like holding hands or just sitting close to each other on a bench somewhere, things like that or holding hands in the cinema.

What my findings suggest is that domestic migration only met some of the needs of queer Poles in terms of their ability to live their lives on their own terms. Even presenting a gender image that did not adhere to the traditional ideas of how Polish men and women should behave and what they should wear was a source of disquiet. As Adam explained:

‘Poland is very rigid in terms of maintaining certain gender identities. […] More often than not, there’s no malice in the remarks people make [but] it still makes you feel kind of uncomfortable.’

Thus, whether or not LGBT Poles migrate to more liberal cities such as Warsaw, their freedom is still constrained to some degree by ‘acceptable’ gender and sexual norms. One way to extricate themselves from these constraining forces was to leave Poland.

Contrary to some Western media reports none of my respondents fled Poland in fear of state persecution. Rather, the general impression given was that their decision to migrate was prompted by the belief that moving to London would grant them greater freedom to perform their sexuality in line with their own desires. As Grzegorz explained: ‘I think homosexuality just plants this thing in your head that you’re not going to be free until you go somewhere where you’re accepted, you know.’ While very few respondents cited the desire to come out as a factor motivating them to move to Britain, the ability to be out to most people beyond a small circle of friends and family was identified as a factor which, if not prompting them to move to the UK in the first place, was at least seen as a reason to stay. To Dariusz, this was tied up with the perception that people in London were more accepting of sexual difference. (It is important to emphasise that attitudes towards homosexuality outside London are not always as positive as in the capital and that anti-LGBT hate crime remains a serious problem throughout the UK.)

I feel much more comfortable being out here at work, everywhere I go, I do feel that, you know, I don’t have to be ashamed of it any more, there’s nothing to hide. […] I know that people here will understand, if they don’t, no problem. So, this is the attitude that, you know, I didn’t have in Poland; I just felt like if someone had a problem with me being gay, they’d probably beat me up or something.

Moving to a town or city with an LGBT scene was frequently cited as a motivation to migrate – particularly for those who had moved directly from small towns to London, rather than first moving to Warsaw or other Polish cities. Florentyna, who grew up in a town of just 50,000 people, initially wanted to move to Edinburgh but eventually opted for London because of the greater range of LGBT venues there. While those who moved from Warsaw or other big cities were less likely to refer to London’s gay scene as a motivating factor, they did notice the impact access to a gay scene like London’s had on LGBT Poles who had migrated from the Polish countryside:

I think a lot of Polish gays, when they come from villages, […] come here and they absolutely explode with freedom. […] They’re from places where it’s really frowned upon and it’s really tough. […] It’s interesting how when they come here, you know, they just, it’s nice to see, they just explode with gayness.


In general, it was the draw of London’s gay scene, sexual citizenship rights and the perception that there was greater acceptance of difference that drew most of my queer Polish respondents to London. Freedom to be oneself trumped all other motivating factors. And, even though a number of respondents still referred to Poland as ‘home’, it was clear many felt more at home in London.

About the author

Richard C.M. Mole, Professor of Political Sociology (UCL SSEES), researches identity, sexuality, and migration, particularly of queer individuals in Eastern Europe. In this piece, he looks at the experiences of queer Poles leaving their home towns and migrating to Warsaw or elsewhere in Europe, where they can more freely explore or express their sexuality.

This post originally appeared on the UCL European Institute blog 

Continue reading →

Author Spotlight: Jack Green and Ros Henry on Olga Tufnell

Posted on April 30, 2021 by Alison Fox
The open access book Olga Tufnell’s 'Perfect Journey':  Letters and photographs of an archaeologist in the Levant and Mediterranean published earlier this week. It tells the fascinating tale of a Olga Tufnell’s life and pursuits as a female archaeologist in the Levant in the 1920s and 30s, a period often described as a golden age of archaeological discovery. Lara Speicher, Head of Publishing, was lucky enough to catch up with the editors

Continue reading →

Launch event: On Boredom - Essays in Art and Writing (27 April 2021, 6:00 pm–7:00 pm)

Posted on April 20, 2021 by Alison Fox

UCL Press, the UCL Institute of Advanced Studies (IAS) and the UCL Centre for the Study of Contemporary Art are very pleased to announce a launch event to celebrate the publication of  On Boredom: Essays in art and writing, edited by Susan Morris and Rye Dag Holmboe. The launch will be hosted by Professor Briony Fer (UCL).

Date: 27th April 2021
Time: 6-7pm GMT
Register here:

On Boredom is the first book to come out of the UCL Centre for the Study for the Contemporary Art, in collaboration with the IAS, following a conference held in the IAS in December 2017.

What do we mean when we say that we are bored? Or when we find a subject boring? Contributors to On Boredom: Essays in art and writing, which include artists, art historians, psychoanalysts and a novelist, examine boredom in its manifold and uncertain reality. Each part of the book takes up a crucial moment in the history of boredom and presents it in a new light, taking the reader from the trials of the consulting room to the experience of hysteria in the nineteenth century. The book pays particular attention to boredom’s relationship with the sudden and rapid advances in technology that have occurred in recent decades, specifically technologies of communication, surveillance and automation.

This launch will focus attention on the question of boredom in the time of Covid-19. The book does already address this in a coda by Michael Newman (below). All of the contributors will be involved in the launch, including artists, theorists, art historians, writers and psychanalysts (Susan Morris, Rye Holmboe, Michael Newman, Josh Cohen, Anoushka Grose, Tom McCarthyMatthew Hale, Margaret Iversen, Briony Fer, and ending the event with a set from the artist Martin Creed).

If boredom is an affect that is epochal and in that respect an ‘attunement’, it will have been transformed under the impact of a genuine event. The Covid-19 pandemic, affecting all of mankind, is clearly such an event. To date boredom has been understood in psychological, existential and historical terms which are all human-centred. However, the pandemic both connects and displaces the human with respect to micro and macro temporalities, from the cellular and viral to the climatic and the anthropocene. What place can boredom have at these scales? The long stretches of lockdown have created new occasions for boredom, and also made explicit that the different kinds of boredom reflect social inequality, as they have done in the past, when the ennui of the monied is not the same as boredom with repetitive work. Generative boredom, if such can still occur, is the privilege of those who have the time and space for it. By forcing people into isolation, or into tight ‘bubbles’, the circumstances of the pandemic bring to the fore that boredom, unlike for example shame, is not a social affect. What is shared, rather, is what alleviates it: banter, humour, gossip and storytelling. This alleviation is not the same as distraction because it has to do with the connection with others. If the ‘great boredom’ was supposed to be an orientation towards everything in the mode of negation or withdrawal, including from distraction, then the pandemic, socially divisive as it may be, changes both the relation to the whole and the experience of isolation. Boredom has always involved a problem with desire and the future. Today it encounters the way surveillance capitalism monetises anticipated behaviours and decisions, thereby pre-empting potentiality, including that held in reserve in supposed boredom. If, under the pandemic, languor, sadness or the daily struggle alternate with sheer panic, what then? Would boredom finally be revealed as the hither side of a different kind of connectedness?

This book will be published by UCL Press on 21st April:

All welcome. An event link will be announced on this webpage. Please register to attend at

Please do not hesitate to contact us if you need assistance on the day, and follow this FAQ link for more information and to read our virtual events code of conduct. All of our events are free, but you can support the IAS here.

Continue reading →

Book Launch Event: Encountering Pain: Hearing, Seeing, Speaking

Posted on March 29, 2021 by Alison Fox

UCL Press and the UCL institute of Advanced Studies are very pleased to launch the open access book Encountering Pain: Hearing, Seeing, Speaking with editors, Dr Deborah Padfield and Prof Joanna M Zakrzewska. Download the book free:

Continue reading →

Scroll to top